Поиск по базе сайта:
Учебно-методическое пособие icon

Учебно-методическое пособие




НазваУчебно-методическое пособие
Сторінка1/9
Дата конвертації04.03.2013
Розмір0.79 Mb.
ТипУчебно-методическое пособие
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9


Государственный университет – Высшая школа экономики

ФАКУЛЬТЕТ ЭКОНОМИКИ

КАФЕДРА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА


Барановская Т.А., Шемякина В.И.


УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ


INFOTECH

HARDWARE


МОСКВА 2009


Предисловие


Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов первого курса, изучающих английский язык в области информационных технологий по теме Hardware. Цель курса научить студентов работать со специальной базой научно-технических данных в названной области.

Представленный материал состоит из 5 разделов, полностью охватывающих указанное направление:


  • Different Types of Computers

  • Computer Basics

  • Input Devices

  • Output Devices

  • Secondary Storage Devices


Практика преподавания настоящего аспекта показала целесообразность лексической направленности упражнений и закрепляющего материала. Учебные задания должны способствовать усвоению специальных понятий и терминов в области информационных технологий.

В первом, третьем, четвертом и пятом разделах представлены задания, позволяющие развивать навыки учащихся давать собственную оценку полученной информации. Каждый урок этих разделов включает: тексты-опоры; англо-русский глоссарий; определения базовых терминов; упражнения, закрепляющие понимание терминологии; лексические упражнения, развивающие устную речь. Второй раздел представляет собой изложение структурной схемы персонального компьютера, поэтому упор в этом разделе делается на усвоение специальных терминов и перевод.

Специфика преподавания данного аспекта состоит в необходимости постоянного обновления материала. Тексты-опоры, содержащие всю необходимую терминологию, дополняются материалами сайтов ИТ и, прежде всего, сайтов выставок CES и CeBit. Представляется целесообразным предлагать студентам самостоятельно находить необходимый материал, развивая тем самым навыки поиска и аннотирования информации. На занятиях предполагается вести обсуждение тем с опорой на текст пособия и знакомый учащимся лексико-грамматический материал. Обсуждения носят информационно-познавательный характер.

Пособие учитывает наличие разноуровневых групп. С этой целью введен раздел, содержащий дополнительные тексты, рассчитанные на самостоятельное освоение материала студентами первых групп.


Contents


Introduction… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …4

Section 1. Different Types of Computers

Unit 1. Five Generations of Computers … … … … … … … … … … … 5

Unit 2. Types of Computers . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 13

Unit 3. Laptops vs Desktops .… … … … … … … … … … … … … … 18

Unit 4. Notebooks vs Netbooks vs Ultra-mobile PCs . … … … … … … 28

Section 2. Computer Basics

Unit 1. Motherboard .. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 35

Unit 2. Microprocessor … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …40

Unit 3. Computer Memory … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …48

Section 3. Input Devices

Unit 1. Computer Keyboard .. … … … … … … … … … … … … … …58

Unit 2. Computer Mouse .. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …64

Unit 3. Image Capture . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …70


Section 4. Output Devices

Unit 1. Computer Monitor … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 77

Unit 2. Types of Printers .. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …84


Section 5. Secondary Storage Devices

Unit 1. Hard disk drive … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 90

Unit 2. Optical Discs … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …97


Section 6. Supplementary Texts… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 104

Text 1. UMPC, MID, Netbook, Nettop

Text 2. The Future of PCs

Text 3. Overclocking

Text 4. Speech Recognition

Text 5. SSD-Solid State Drive

Text 6. USB Flash Drive

Text 7. Different types of memory cards


Introduction


Information technology, or IT, describes any technology that powers or enables the storage, processing and information flow within an organization. Anything involved with computers, software, networks, intranets, Web sites, servers, databases and telecommunications falls under the IT umbrella.

The software and the hardware make up a computer system.

Hardware refers to the physical portion of the computer system, including the electrical/electronic components (e.g. devices and circuits), electromechanical components (e.g. a disk drive), and mechanical components.

Software is most commonly used to refer to the programs executed by a computer system.

Central processing unit implies the principal operating part of a computer. It is usually defined as the ALU (arithmetic and logic unit) and the control unit (CU). It must be joined to a primary memory to form the processor-memory of the basic von Neumann machine.

The term peripheral identifies any device, including I/O devices and backing store, that is connected to the computer. The term originated in the mainframe era. Since the advent of the smaller computers, printers etc., the term peripheral is seldom used.


Section 1

Different Types of Computers


^ Unit 1

The Five Generations of Computers

The history of computer development is often referred to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

Read about each generation and the developments that led to the current devices that we use today.

^ First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

^ Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

High-level programming languages were developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.

The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.

^ Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits

The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

^ Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and moved into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

^ Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.


Vocabulary


vacuum tube электровакуумная лампа, вакуумная трубка

circuitry схемы; цепи

magnetic drum магнитный барабан, внешнее запоминающее устройство прямого доступа

generate производить, создавать, образовывать, формировать

malfunction сбой, неисправность

punch card = punched card перфокарта

paper tape перфолента

printout распечатка, твердая копия

assembly language язык ассемблера

magnetic core магнитопровод; магнитный сердечник

integrated circuit ( IC) интегральная микросхема, ИС, микросхема полупроводниковый прибор, содержащий несколько электронных элементов

transistor транзистор, электронный прибор, на котором строится логика интегральной микросхемы

silicon chip кремниевая микросхема

silicon кремний, полупроводниковый материал

chip микросхема, кристалл, чип от слова microchip; общее название интегральной схемы

chip, element

integrated circuit, microchip микросхема

semiconductor полупроводник

efficiency эффективность, производительность

inefficiency неэффективность

efficiency, performance,

power, productivity

capability, capacity производительность

duty cycle производительность, [максимальная] нагрузка например, число страниц, печатаемых на принтере в месяц

performance производительность, быстродействие, эффективность

power мощность, энергия, способность, производительность, степень, показатель степени

productivity производительность

interface (n) сопряжение; согласование

inteface (v) соединять

monitor осуществлять текущий контроль, контролировать

application ( app) приложение, прикладная программа

control устройство [орган] управления

parallel processing параллельная обработка, параллельное выполнение

superconductor сверхпроводник

quantum computer квантовый компьютер


^ Basic Terminology




interface (n) a common boundary between two systems, devices, or programs

interface (v) to provide and interface; to interact

user interface(n) the means of communication between a human user and a computer system, referring in particular to the use of input/output devices with supporting software

chip 1. a device made up of a non-metallic semiconducting material (silicon), which contains a set of integrated circuits, with high-speed performance

2. informal name for integrated circuit


  1. Answer the following questions:


What caused the malfunctions in the first computers?

What are the advantages of transistors?

What was the main distinctive feature of the third generation of computers?

What advanced IBM to introduce first home computer?

What is the goal of the fifth-generation computing?

  1. ^ Find in the text the equivalents to the following words and phrases :

совершенствование технологии

эффективные и надежные устройства

занимать целую комнату

причины сбоя

транзисторы значительно превосходят вакуумные лампы

подвергать компьютер повреждениям

отличительная черта третьего поколения компьютеров

взаимодействовать с компьютером посредством клавиатуры и монитора

находиться в стадии развития

искусственный интеллект


Defining a term


If you define something, you show, describe, or state clearly what it is and what its limits are, or what it is like.

To define a term you have to use the following words and expressions:

apply to, refer to, relate with, imply, define, is used to identify, is used to describe, represent, constitute.

  1. Algorithm refers to a series of instructions or a step-by-step procedure for the solution of a problem.

  2. Byte implies a unit of information which consists of a fixed number of bits.

  3. The term disk is used to identify a storage device made of flat circular plates with magnetizable surfaces.

  4. Input represents the process of transferring information into the memory from some peripheral unit.



  1. Match the terms to the definitions:



Terms

Definitions

Circuitry

very small electronic circuit printed on a single silicon chip

Malfunction

a solid-state electronic switch or amplifier

Transistor

the main electronic chip of a computer

integrated circuit

a type of computer technology which is concerned with making machines work in an intelligent way, similar to the way that the human mind works

microprocessor

a system of electric circuits

Artificial Intelligence

a common boundary between two systems, devices, or programs

parallel processing

the branch of technology that deals with dimensions of less than 100 nanometres, especially the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules

Interface

a mode of computer operation in which a process is split into parts that execute simultaneously on different processors attached to the same computer

Nanotechnology

the occurrence of a fault, usually a hardware fault



  1. ^ Make up a plan and retell the text.


Phrasal Verbs

The term phrasal verb is used to describe a combination of verb+preposition. There is a strong tendency to use phrasal verbs instead of their one-verb equivalents.


  1. Different meanings of the phrasal verbs are given. Translate the following phrasal verbs and construct your own sentences:



move away

  • If you move away, you go and live in a different town or area of a country.

move in, move into

  • When you move in somewhere, you begin to live there as your home.

move in

  • If police, soldiers, or attackers move in, they go towards a place or person in order to deal with or attack them. Intervene, especially so as to attack or take control.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9



Схожі:




База даних захищена авторським правом ©lib.exdat.com
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації